Sunday, May 24, 2020
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Essay About Harm Of Computer Games Games are inevitable in the life of modern people. In the past there were only two kinds of games available to people: outdoor or indoor. But today the interest of youngsters is tied to various video games. Children go mad about those and, unfortunately, some parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay enough attention to this problem. They are happy to enjoy their free time without any worries considering where their kid is, or what active outdoor game to invent for him. But such behavior can bring about many unhappy results. In order for children to develop, they need to be in motion, to be involved in many different activities. But when playing a video or computer game, neither their muscles, nor intellect is trained. Children can even become addicted to this dangerous activity and will stop communicating with their friends. They will end up alone having no real life, just a virtual one. However, there is a way for children to play some games on computer without any serious harm for their health and development. Parents just have to limit the time of computer usage for kids and allow them to play only those games that are beneficial for development of main skills and intellect. A couple of hours per day will be enough for educational purposes. The kid will learn some new skills and then can go into the street and play some active games or practice the newly-acquired knowledge. To sum up, it is up for parents to decide what is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most powerful person of the French Revolution. Today, many countries world-wide still remember his name because observing his legacy; his name will be forever in the human history. Ã¢â¬Å"Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769, in Ajaccio, Corsica, France. He died in 1821, on the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. Napoleon was the most distinguished leaders in the history of the WestÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"NapoleonÃ¢â¬ ). According to the article, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams were to organize France by creating new reforms to make France more organized with self-regulations. One of the most admirable concepts that he had was his perseverance to reach his achievements to make the changes in France, which were in education, law, and finance. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s goals were to establish reforms to organize education, law, finance, and religion. Furthermore, he was well know as a revolutionary military with experience in organization, training, and go od administrators in the government. He decided to develop the following reform, which he considered as a very important basis for the government. Napoleon built many new lycees, schools for boys age 10 to 16. He recognized the importance of education in producing citizens capable of filling positions in his bureaucracy and military. Although he did not create a system of mass education, education was more available to the middle class than it ever had been before. (Ã¢â¬Å"ReformsÃ¢â¬ ). According to the article, this step wasShow MoreRelatedThe French Revolution: Napoleon Essay954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The French Revolution was a period of social and political turmoil in France from 1789 to 1799 that greatly affected modern and French history. It marked the decline of powerful monarchies and the rise of democracy, individual rights and nationalism. This revolution came with many consequences because of the strive for power and wealth, but also had many influential leaders attempting to initiate change in the French government and the economy. In 1789 the people of France dismissed King Louis XVIRead MoreNapoleon Bonaparte As A Multi Faceted Genius1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNour Ziena Mrs. Mackenzie CLN4U 2016-03-28 Introduction Throughout history, men have always been able to conquer different lands. But of these men Ã¢â¬Å"The Little Corporal also known as Napoleon Bonaparte was able to cast a long shadow, from Holland to Egypt, from Moscow to Cadiz. The code Napoleon still remains with us, as the Arc de Triomphe and the memory of a multi-faceted genius. Throughout the history Europe, kings and dictators have been infamous for their voracious desire for control and completeRead MoreRollercoaster of Arts and Architecture Brought About by Napolean Bonaparte1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbecause of the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. Soon enough art would become a way for people, (even those without high-level education) to express themselves. The new styles of architecture and visual arts that Napoleon introduced in France sparked new eras of art like Romanticism that he used to make himself popular; it caused Napoleon to be noticed, not just because of his military conquests, but also because of his artistic vision and innovation. The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte was spectacular becauseRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Declaration Of The Rights Of Man1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe French Revolution began with King Louis XVI, and his wife, and ended with Napoleon Bonaparte. In between these two powerful peoples reign, The Declaration of the Rights of Man was created, which was an outline of manÃ¢â¬â¢s natural rights. The document enforced that the wealthy pay taxes and that more jobs become available. This outline, one of the most important underlying documents of equality within the French Revolution, began to appear all over Europe. The articles within the declaration wereRead MoreNapoleon Bonaparte as a Military Leader600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNapoleon Bonaparte as a Military Leader There have been many successful military leaders throughout history, but no leader has ever conquered the entire world. Napoleon Bonaparte, one of the best leaders of all time, nearly achieved this goal. Although his conquest for power and territory were beneficial to France, it did not have the same effect on Europe. As a self-appointed emperor, Napoleon was known as an extraordinary military field general and an effective reformer. His political policy furtheredRead MoreNapoleon And The Enlightenment1214 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNapoleon And The Enlightenment The enlightenment was a time of great learning throughout Europe during the eighteenth century. Although the period is significant for scientific and other scholastic advancements, it is most important because it allowed for the opening of great minds--such as that of Napoleon Bonaparte. Shortly after this enlightenment made its way through Europe, revolution and civil war ripped through France between 1879 and 1899. The unrest of the time called for a strong rulerRead MoreNapoleon Bonaparte and The French Revolution2105 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNapoleon and The French revolution Napoleon Bonaparte was a visionary to some, and a ruthless ruler to others. The purpose of the French revolution was to free the oppressed and stop the bloodshed that was occurring in France. The real question is whether Napoleon was the legitimate heir to the visions of the French revolution. Napoleon was in essence a very powerful man that took control of France but threw out many of the ideals of the French Revolution. His actions during his takeover whereRead MoreNapoleon and the Enlightenment Essay examples974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNapoleon and the Enlightenment The enlightenment was a time of great learning throughout Europe during the eighteenth century. Although the period is significant for scientific and other scholastic advancements, it is most important because it allowed for the opening of great minds#8212;such as that of Napoleon Bonaparte. Shortly after this enlightenment made its way through Europe, revolution and civil war ripped through France between 1879 and 1899. The unrest of the time called forRead MoreEssay Napoleon Bonaparte1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNapoleon Bonaparte Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Napoleon Bonaparte is considered to be one of the greatest conquers and captains of modern times. In history perhaps no one person has ever aroused so many intense opposite emotions. Perhaps no one had ever claimed as much of the admiration, fear, and hatred of all men as did Napoleon. Napoleon was a man with many sides. He started many of his challenging voyages and defeats as a young child and they continued throughout his life. He had many accomplishments and manyRead MoreThe French Revolution1909 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdictator, however, created a legacy that any person would know and created an ideology that is used in almost all first world countries, and many other second war countries now as well. This dictator is Napoleon Bonaparte. He is a catalyst for change because he created a dominant army from the scraps of the French Revolution, which led to his dominance throughout Europe, creating a lasting principle that most people now think of it as a norm. The French Government was rapidly losing power during
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write an essay of at least three pages comparing and contrasting the rhetorical situations of the two essays? Answer: Just Walk On By: Black Men and Public Space by Brent Staples(p. 394-98) and On Dumpster Diving by Lars Eighner (p. 139-51) The pressure from society to be both accepting and open in nature for being able to progress with true equality is considered to be a wonderful thought. Nonetheless, there are stereotypes that are associated with the different forms of culture, races and gender and these defined perceptions till date leads to injustice on mankind and put forward a hindrance when it comes to a truly equal future. The essay by Brent Staples Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space in this context is an extremely thought provoking read. The purpose of this essay is to showcase how the aspects of racism and unconscious prejudice still exist in the mind of the common man. He talks about his personal experiences and reminiscences about how he dealt with it (Cohen). Staples was born in 1951 and has a PHD in philosophy from University of Chicago and was a journalist by profession. This essay as written for a magazine in the year 1986 (Rich, Smith and Thompson). The speaker in this essay is the author himself as he describes himself as a broad six feet two inches, a large man. Similarly it may be seen that in the essay On Dumpster Divingby Lars Eighner, which is a piece of work from his work Travels with Lizbeth and deals with his experiences of homelessness (Eighner). Unlike Staples, Eighner was a gay erotica writer and also a former assistant ward worker with the Austin state hospital. While in Staples work the author refers to himself in the third person, Eigher uses the first person to talk about his homelessness and his thoughts reading that time period in a personal voice (Aaron and Kuhl). Both pieces of writing takes in social issues and themes and voices them by using the individual frame. The encounters that Brent Staples unfurls in his writing are those that he had with the people around him, who perceived him as a threat as he was a black man. He outlines incidences where women ran away from him in the streets, how he was forcibly asked to leave a jewellery store and also one painful incidence where he was perceived as a burglar, though mistakenly, at his own place of work. The author uses imagery and descriptive writing to recreate the experiences for the reader (DiYanni). Eigner on the other hand, while speaking about his homeless days, reflects on the life that he termed as scavenger and draws a deep analogy of what is considered by the society as trash. He starts with his fascination towards dumpsters and dumpster diving and introduces the readers to this way of life which many would look down upon with contempt (Cohen). Both Staples and Eigner had their essays published in magazines while pointed towards the fact that they wanted their chosen readers to be from a broad category. This included both male and female readers of various different age groups. However, a greater portion of Staples essay reached out to the black audiences since many of them could identify with tier own experiences that was similar to that of Staples and open up a differential point for the White counterparts making them realise how racism and differential treatment made the victimised individuals feel (Peterson, Brereton and Hartman). On the other hand, since Eigner dealt with a social issue that pointed towards hunger, homelessness and the depiction of what would presumably trash for an individual while necessity for another, this reached out to readers irrespective of irrespective of their age, colour or race. In conclusion it may be stated that based on the following analysis of the authors, purpose, and context of Staples and Eigners essays, it can be concluded that although they differ in many ways, they share underlying similarities that make their readers want to become more socially engaged. Even though the two essays were on two different topics, yet they both attempted to make powerful social contribution. While Staples essay outlined racial differences and the evils of the society when it came to how they looked upon individual because of their differences, Eigner outlined how society as a whole looked down upon individual who were different from the others on a socio economic strata and never failed to demarcate their disgust from their rational viewpoint when it came to judging the dumpster divers lowly lifestyle. The main highlight of Eigners essay was to implore the individuals of the society to never give up on their ventures also leaves a message to the society to change the ir views regarding what they think may be discarded as trash. References Aaron, Jane E, and Ellen Kuhl.The Compact Reader. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011. Print. Cohen, Samuel S.50 Essays. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007. Print. DiYanni, Robert.Fifty Great Essays. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Print. Eighner, Lars.Travels With Lizbeth. Print. Peterson, Linda H, John C Brereton, and Joan Hartman.The Norton Reader. New York: Norton, 1996. Print. Rich, Mari, Olivia J Smith, and Clifford Thompson.World Authors, 1985-2000. New York: H.W. Wilson, 2003. Print.
Sunday, April 5, 2020
A New Technology of Cloning Humans essays Is cloning the new method to treat human beings in the future? Recently, there has been an argument about cloning a human being. When it comes to cloning, people seem to want it both ways: "no" to reproductive cloning on moral grounds and "yes" to therapeutic cloning on scientific grounds. But, which one is the right decision? Human therapeutic cloning helps the ill to recover more efficiently. Therapeutic cloning helps recreate cells and tissues for better health. The Advanced Cell Technology say: 'therapeutic cloning is cloning for the possibility of recreating young cells and tissues potentially of any kind, genetically identical to the person who needs them, to replace worn out cells and tissues? (www.advancedcell.com). This therapy would help patients with Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, heart muscle cells for heart failure, cartilage for arthritis, pancreatic cells for diabetes, as well as many others. Cells are obtained from embryos during women first stage of fertilization. This is one problem that part of society is concern about. They think this act is against moral grounds. Politicians are very concerned with this new therapy method too. They rail against the scientists and try to prohibit a whole tide of research. But such social and political responses ignore the dynamism of medical science its complexity and possibility. At this point, society and politicians have asked many questions to this new issue. Are women allowed to do this? Should there be a restriction on who is able to provide embryos? Is this against religious judgment? But, adult women are capable of their own decisions. If she has chosen to be a donor, it's because she needs a financial support, and at the same time she wants to help people not capable to ideally complete certain present treatments. Before she donates, she is aware of the causes and consequences for which she'd ...
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Caribbean Governance the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis Essay Example Caribbean Governance the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis Essay Caribbean Governance the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis Essay ABSTRACT: The importance of an efficient and effective Caribbean in the delivery of economic and social development is a long-standing theme of development policy. This however has not always been the case and the result is a Caribbean repeating past mistakes and compromising in some cases the theme of the development strategy. Global recession has consistently tested the resolve of the Caribbean and to this end there is a need to address the factors that have consistently led to the economic decline of the island states. This paper examines the recent experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean in dealing with the current Global economic crisis with a particular focus on Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. It begins by examining the signs and the effect on each island. The paper then identifies five key issues that have emerged as factors contributing to and needing the attention of the heads in order to ameliorate against an occurrence in the future: regionalism, integration, transparency and governance are examined as being overarching themes the fundamental problems are dealt with individually within the essay. In each case the background to its contribution to the problem is given along with the solution to the problem. A history examining the recession as a new phenomenon and by extention unprecedented is assessed. The paper concludes by discussing one key dimension of the global economic crisis experience: globalisation and the importance of politics in promoting and sustaining a successful relationship with the rest of the world. The final section sums up the main points. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author (Jepter Lorde) and do not necessarily reflect the views of The University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus or its Board of Directors and/or Board of Governors. It is a fact that the world economy is facing the worst financial crisis since the great depression. It can be argued the crisis is taking place at a time when Caribbean countries are grappling with over arching themes of structural adjustment, transparency and governance as well as globalisation, integration and regionalism issues indicating a Caribbean challenged. It is clear that these reoccurring themes are a reflection of the global economic situation and can threaten to reverse the few gains made by the region in recent years. The general consensus therefore is that the near unprecedented period of national recession currently being experienced in English and non English speaking Caribbean islands should be confronted with bold, swift and concerted actions to reduce the potential negative effects of the crisis on these developing states. ECLAC or The Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean clearly articulates five main channels of impact or signs that can serve as lead indicators to the crisis they are financial contagion, excessive external borrowing, and reduction in foreign direct investment, external demand reduction of goods and services, reduced workersÃ¢â¬â¢ remittances as well as changes in relative prices (particularly commodity prices). It is the position of this essay that the present situation is not unprecedented, this essay will seek to clearly identify the signs of the crisis and the corollary effects, as previously articulated by ECLAC, while at the same time outlining the factors that account for the exposure of the national state to this current state of affairs. Attention will be paid to three Caribbean islands where the issues are current and dynamic; they are Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. In order to clearly identify the signs of the crisis it would be intuitive at this time to contextualise the framework within which the essay is structured; the contributing key terms are global recession, crisis and unprecedented. Global recession is widely accepted and can only be confirmed if GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth is negative for a period of two or more consecutive quarters, by extention a national recession can be defined using the same parameters and be the recipient of a knock on effect attributed to the Global situation (Willis Peterson 2002). A crisis is an end product, manifesting itself after showing signs the organs central to the operation of a system begin functioning erratically; in extreme cases they stop functioning entirely. The result, if the system is to be salvaged, is a slow and painful adjustment. (Barry Eichengreen 2002). External borrowing and the payment of interest rates is not new to the Caribbean and is described by Norman Girvan as being responsible for the single largest movement of money out of the region towards satisfying the myopic, parasitic appetite of an elite imperialist class. This movement has contributed to the perpetual cycle of poverty, dependency and the corollary criminality due to high debt servicing arrangements and the inability of Governments to invest in the social and welfare development of its people, Jamaica therefore is no stranger to this. The lack of good Governance however has lead to a further exacerbation of the condition. In examining good governance and the effect of external borrowing two items of note, the JLP win in 1981 coincided with the election of Ronald Reagan and the Neo-Liberal approach to global economic relations, an ideology the Edward Seaga administration was sympathetic to, the approach signalled not only a change in economic policy direction but also renewed contact between the government of Jamaica and the IMF (Davies 1996). Having articulated a new policy direction the expectation therefore would be a turnaround in the fortunes of the Jamaican economy-this was not to be. The record showed a slowdown in key production sectors of bauxite, agriculture and textiles Ã¢â¬â to put it bluntly the country was in a worst position than was the case with the former PNP administration after having received more than preferential terms under the JLP administration. One aspect of the relationship was clear; it could not continue (Davies 1996). Clive Thomas offers some insight to the situation, he makes an observation concerning the class relations in the Caribbean but the analysis in the Poor and the Powerless is collectively intuitive, salient and reflective of the relations taking place: Ã¢â¬Å"A fourth observation is that the petty bourgeoisie that presently controls state power is not a homogeneous group, but includes several fractions professionals, political administrative, state-economic, and private and although fractional conflict exists generally, in the absence of an entrenched ruling class, its self-interest leads it to develop closer relations with national private capital. Because of these considerations the state takes on the characteristic of being a state for itself, and in the absence of bourgeois democratic constitutional restraints, it can proceed rapidly to the institutionalization of all forms of corruption. This, we believe, is the central explanatory factor behind the rise of corruption, and the pattern which it has taken in the region, i. e. , it constitutes a means of facilitating the consolidation of an economic base and the enlargement of property held by this class. Ã¢â¬ The socioeconomic fallout from the association with the International Monetary Fund has stymied the development of the island and as undermined the limited gains made in the post independence era, is the current situation facing Jamaica unprecedented the answer is simply no. The year is 2009 and the incestuous relationship between aspects of the governing elite and unsavoury elements of the society has not so subtly festered to the surface. The JLP is once again in office and scandal of epic proportions has gripped the party with the arrest of Christopher Ã¢â¬ËDudusÃ¢â¬â¢ Coke, drug lord, reputed strongman and Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢ to the JLP. Horace Campbell Professor of African American and Political studies at Syracuse University had this to say: Ã¢â¬Å"The arrest of Christopher Ã¢â¬ËDudusÃ¢â¬â¢ Coke in Kingston has reopened the issues of the use of thugs and gunmen to intimidate the poor in Caribbean. From Mexico to Guyana and from Brazil to Trinidad, gunmen and criminal elements integrated into the cocaine, guns, politics and banking business terrorise the poor and ensure that international capitalism thrives on the backs and bodies of the most oppressed. Dudus had inherited a criminal infrastructure from his father (also known as Jim Brown) that had been organised by politicians to coerce and intimidate the working poor. Ã¢â¬ The phenomenon of Garrison politics has been around since the 1970 in Jamaica, no doubt having the blessing of the political elite; it has however bought into sharp focus the inability of a Government to govern and to tackle the pressure of a Global and National recession in the face of excessive external borrowing and the filtering of Government funds to support an underworld dominated by gangsters and social parasites. Thirty years later Christopher Coke operates a state within a state funded by Government largesse, patron Clientilism and the sale of illegal drugs. It takes the action of a grand jury in the USA and pressure to be brought to bear on JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s political elite to expose the attempts made by Prime Minister Bruce Golding to prevent the extradition and his relationship with the Jamaican Ã¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢ by contracting the services of Manatt, Phelps and Phillips to lobby the US Government to discontinue extradition proceedings against Ã¢â¬ËDudusÃ¢â¬â¢. While grappling with this the country has found itself in the hands of the IMF to restructure the economy-a familiar refrain. Some seventy three died and prior to this latest embarrassment to the Caribbean hundreds if not thousands dispersed in 1980 in an attempt to settle differences between international capital, the local elite and the lumpenproletariat. Given the present state of affairs it would appear that many more will die but what is more alarming is their lack of knowledge of that fact. The Caribbean and its association to the metropole can be traced back to about five hundred years, from the inception the colonial states were established only to serve the hegemonic and self serving ambitions of a ruling class far removed from the economic deprivation visited upon the inhabitants of the Caribbean. The relationship was brutal and coercive and structured to extract the maximum by way of output while at the same time perpetuating and maintaining constant dependence on the metropole (Eric Williams 1970). Barbados, given its geographic location at the time, had become a victim of the economic structure and showed signs of this during the early stages of the national recession from 1991-1994. The country suffered reduction of foreign direct investment and external demand reduction for goods and services, led by the then DLP administration under the leadership of then Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine Sandiford. This structured economic isolation has its genesis not within the context of a dynamic global economic arena in which Barbados is a contributing player but from a system, long established by the former colonial masters, of Plantation Economy which posits that plantation slavery and specialization in export of primary commodities, in this instance Tourism, has marked the evolution of the societies in which it existed. The plantation economy theorist Lloyd Best explains, Ã¢â¬Å"The legacy of institutions, structures and behaviour patterns of the plantation system are so deeply entrenched that adjustment tends to take place as an adaptation within the bounds of the established frameworkÃ¢â¬ (Best 1968, p. 32). The Caribbean economist Norman Girvan contends that the transnational corporation (TNC) is an institution that exists within the Ã¢â¬Å"rules of the gameÃ¢â¬ of the plantation economy. He points out that the historic continuity of foreign ownership, terminal stage of production, limited domestic linkages, repatriation of profits, and persistence of the incalculability of value flows with transfer pricing by TNCs are similar to slave plantationÃ¢â¬âmetropole flows. The tourism product in Barbados resembles exactly the description advanced by Girvan. Undiversified for almost fifty years it depends solely on the England, USA and to a lesser extent Canada for annual tourist arrivals. Major players Hilton, Marriott, Sandy Lane and Four Seasons with the all inclusive package leave most if not all of the spend in the country of origin. Specialist areas within the culinary arts are held by foreign professionals with limited or no transferable skills to local workers. The results are unapologetic; with the fall in investment capital demand as a consequence shifts inward due to the exogenous shock resulting in reduced output in consumption and government spending. With this shortfall in potential output as opposed to actual output unemployment is the result with all of the social ill associated with it. Unprecedented therefore cannot describe the present occurrence because Barbados has experienced it before. The year is 2008 and the Barbados government led once again by the DLP administration has found itself in the unenviable position of managing an economy with reduced output, falling external demand for the mono crop tourism, increase in unemployment and marked increases in criminality as well as reduction in foreign direct investment. This situation has been highlighted by the inability of the country to restart the famed Four Seasons project; it is not difficult to understand the dynamics between International finance capital and local investment. With the impact of the world economic crisis tightening its grip flight of capital was seen as an understood result. The sector depends heavily on the foreign visitor who has stopped travelling, with reduced spend the sector is not seen as attractive by way of investment. The result is a contraction of the industry and the flight of the funds to the metropole of origin the past has once again repeated itself. It is no doubt therefore that civil assignments such as the Four Seasons project valued currently at US five hundred million has been on hold for two years, Merricks Beach Resort and Residence development project unable to secure the funding but also valued at some five hundred million US dollars and the long overdue Bridgetown to Hilton development project are all victims of the dependence on International finance capital and foreign direct investment. These projects are substantial and impact directly on the tourism sector the chief pillar of economic growth to the island. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s outrageous and insane, those crazy prices in Port of SpainÃ¢â¬ ¦. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s sad, and getting so bad, Oh Lord, capitalism gone mad. This was the cry of the Mighty Sparrow former Calypso King of Trinidad and Tobago in 1983. Prices were described as among the highest in the Caribbean. The latest style from the United States catches on with the unspoken assumption the rest of the Caribbean is be hind the times (Barry et al 1984). An editorial in an Antiguan paper sums up Trinidad at the time: Ã¢â¬Å"Port of Spain is a hustlers paradise, a fair ground with pirates at large, music booming, New York trinkets on the side walk, everybody on a hustleÃ¢â¬ ¦Our diseased and destitute sprawled on the roadsides, our mad directing traffic or otherwise engaging with their demons and quoting the song Ã¢â¬ËCapitalism gone mad. Ã¢â¬ Certainly not the paradise the Caribbean is known for however this clearly shows a Trinidad embracing the negative aspects of both a developed and underdeveloped world. A number of social ills to consider: increased criminality, alienation, decadence and as previously mentioned consumerism of the industrial metropole alongside perpetual poverty, social decay, economic dependence and foreign domination. This essentially summed up what Trinidad had become in the wake of a slump of global oil prices that had once catapulted the island ahead of its regional counterparts (Barry et al 1994). Trinidad had adopted a laid back approach to ownership only seeking tax dollars and production sharing contracts as the basis of relations with the TNC instead of direct ownership of the non renewable. Barry, Wood and Preusch describe the results: Ã¢â¬Å"The in rush of foreign exchange, as a result of petrodollars, into the economy has been largely wasted on lavish import bills rather than transformation of the economy. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no morality left,Ã¢â¬ wrote one Caribbean commentator. Ã¢â¬Å"It is now a free for all. The paramount value today is money. Ã¢â¬ The economic expansion ended as prices and demand for oil in global markets retreated. In1982, for the first time in eight years, the country suffered a trade deficit which totaled some two hundred million dollars. Put bluntly by the then Prime Minister George Chambers in the 1983 budget report, Ã¢â¬Å"The fete is over. The reality of a situation having its genesis in the global arena but with contributing factors locally saw the economy and most importantly people of Trinidad suffering then as they do now. The contributing factors are that of transparency and good governance on the part of the then Eric Williams admi nistration and an ethnic and class divide that is the result of the imposition of colonial domination has sought to divide and separate the groups (Harewood and Henry 1988, 1989). Once again another island state and once again precedence is set. The year is 2008 many in the Caribbean depend on the charity of friends and families to supplement incomes as well as to serve as a depository for the hard earned foreign currency. Trinidad and Tobago is no different; two major dynamics are being played out the first is the challenge for developing countries to create economic opportunities for trained nationals and second the marginalization of the said countries as a result of globalisation. The result has seen aging economies such as Canada and Europe attracting younger skilled labor from the Caribbean. For these reasons, it is certain that the phenomenon, that is remittances, will be with us for a long time. In Trinidad for example, these remittances have impacted the economy as they represent, although undocumented at some levels, a proportion of foreign exchange earnings, contributing to an improvement of the standard of living of many Trinidadians and Tobagonians, provide finance for balance of payments support, and aided economic growth and development of the economy (Solas 2001). The Inter American Development Bank has lauded the efforts of the Caribbean in this area, it is in fact one of the instances where the thrift of Caribbean people is put to sound economic use. The analysis does not end there, Solas goes on to make three telling summary observations: The profile of a typical recipient in the State mentioned, is lower to lower-middle income or unemployed persons, the frequency of the remittance also speaks to the vital role it plays. For many households, the remittance is the means by which the basic necessities are met and finally income from offshore investments and migrant capital repatriation are typically handled within the formal banking system which consist of finance and insurance services. If for any reason this process is disrupted for any length of time it could therefore have debilitating consequences for the sender, recipient and the economy. With the advent of CL Financial and a viral form of finance capital establishing itself throughout the Caribbean this option of investment has found favour with local as well as foreign Trinidadians hoping to create wealth within the Caribbean by way of remittances, in 2008 hopes of maintaining that discipline were dashed as CL Financial as well as subsidiaries CLICO and BAICO all declared some level of financial distress of varying proportions and the financial contagion once localized to the United States had arrived in the Caribbean. Norman Girvan Professor Emeritus University of the West Indies gives an analysis: Ã¢â¬Å"What we need to think about is the meaning of the facts that have been disclosed in the statement. What these facts tell us about the state of corporate governance in what was one of CaricomÃ¢â¬â¢s largest conglomerates and Ã¢â¬Ëstar performersÃ¢â¬â¢ in engaging with globalisation. What they tell us about the gaps in regulation and supervision of financial institutions in individual country jurisdictions, and across Caricom as a whole. And what they tell us about the costs of these defects- in corporate governance and in government regulationto governments and to taxpayers. Trinidad has once again found itself in an undefined position and unable to act with the decisive and determined forcefulness needed to bring to heal the pervasive rot that has encircled the Caribbean, this time from within and compromising at the micro level the immediate well being of its citizens. On examining the iss ues class relations must be of importance as this once again has shown itself resilient and poignant with respect to an explanation of the results direction taken by the present administration led by Prime Minister Kamla Persad Bissessar as opposed the decision taken by the then PNM led by Patrick Manning. Initially the PNM seen as a party representing the interest of the black community positioned a 100% payback on all monies deposited, this is however not the case with the present coalition UNC identified with the ethnic Indian population. The entire picture is very confused, which seems to be deliberate. The two investments made in this situation Ã¢â¬â firstly, the basic and traditional insurance products such as pensions; life, health and general insurance and secondly, the depositor who was seeking high returns. The pension products offered a 12% rate of return, but the short-term depositors were much higher. The current discussion and argument is actually about the repayment of the depositors, not the traditional insurance policyholders. The fate of the policyholders is often invoked by depositors arguing for the return of their own deposits and that is why the separation between the two, which Winston Dookeran Minister of Finance makes, is so important. To quote Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦The number of traditional, long term policyholders affected by this crisis, covering pensions, life and health insurance, is around 225,000 persons and accounts for $6 billion in liabilitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ That is an average of $26,666 per policyholder. Again Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦There are approximately 25,000 customers holding these short term contracts, and the liability to this group is in the region of $12 billionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ That is an average of $480,000 per depositor. It is observed however, the voice of the traditional policyholders, who outnumber the depositors nine-to-one, is silent. But then again, it is clear that by far the greater liability lies with the depositors and further, that they appear, on average at least, to be owed about 18 times more than the typical policyholder. The question must be asked who composes the ordinary shareholder and the answer is intuitive it would be the black working class of Trinidad and Tobago who by assessment by Harewood and Henry dominate the class of citizen in Trinidad unable to own the factors of production, have available to them large tracts of cash and therefore could not invest in dubious short term annuities as depositors. Trinidadians who did not invest are faced with the idea of taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ funds being used to rescue those who placed bets on high-return deposits it by extention will not end there because if the financial sector is seen as dubious and questionable in its operation then small incremental investors will find alternatives thus impacting the industry overall and GDP. CL Financial chiefs and the depositors are being spared the consequences of their decisions by the bailout process. Afra Raymond concludes by making some telling points of identifying those groups as being differently treated from each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Duprey and his cohorts negotiated a Blank-Cheque Bailout at zero interest, without losing any of their assets. That deal is absolutely unique. Our taxpayers have effectively made a huge single loan (probably the largest in the RegionÃ¢â¬â¢s history) to the wealthiest individual in the Region at Zero interest virtually every relevant professional body and Civic Society organisation has remained silent on this bold-faced attack on our Treasury. Nothing from the Accountants, Lawyers, Bankers, Economists, Trade Unionists or Religious bodies the one recent exception to this has been the call by the Trinidad Tobago Transparency Institute (TTTI) for investigations into the Angostura disaster. The CL Financial bailout has been cloaked in the robes of benevolence and stability, resulting in a situation which has minimized the floods of lawsuits which would have been confronting some of those responsible parties Ã¢â¬â Auditors, Attorneys, Company Directors and Officers In reality, the common-wealth of our entire society has been pledged to rescue a fortunate few. The CL Financial bailout is in urgent need of re-negotiation, to say the least, it wrong like a biscuit. Ã¢â¬ It is a refrain that has haunted the island state for many years and each ime the mistakes of the past are repeated the results are more debilitating, it is therefore necessary for the Caribbean to reassess the position and to chart a new way forward. It wil l be intuitive to examine what was done wrong and implement what can be done right. It is by no means an easy undertaking addressing the problems of the Caribbean these problems are complex and entrenched in the colonial relationship of the past, it is believed however that if the attempt is genuinely made by leaders in the region to engage five key areas of interest the effects of the present global recession and any future business cycle fluctuation can be managed and at the same time reducing the impact on the socially vulnerable groups. CARICOM can be described as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second deepest regional integration scheme and as such set the framework for further structural development with the signing of the revised treaty of Chaguaramas creating the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Its mandate sets out the free movement of goods, services, capital and certain categories of skilled labour. It also envisions harmonization and coordination of economic policy and eventually a single currency. While ambitions under the CSME are very high, the institutional structure remains minimal. To a greater extent, the CSME still operates in an intergovernmental framework and as such its relevance to a Caribbean faced with exogenous shocks, the likes of which has the ability to erode decades of hard won gains, should be called into question. The link between economic and political integration remains a contentious issue in a region where failed attempts at political unity still haunts the political landscape and where national sovereignty is guarded suspiciously. Decisions are still made by unanimous voting in both the Heads of Government Conference the highest decision making body- and the Council of Ministers. Even the newly created Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) lacks supranational authority in the form of direct effect of decisions. To date Barbados, Guyana and Antigua are signatories to the court but what is even more scandalous is the location of the court within the twin island of Trinidad and Tobago a non signatory and critic to its establishment. The devil therefore is in the details, the lack of commitment on the part of the leaders has left the Caribbean exposed. If the Caribbean had shown the maturity at the time of the West Indian Federation under the leadership of the then Grantley Adams the community would have been more than able to weather the global economic storm and mitigate against a rise in unemployment and foreign direct investment having forged closer ties under the banner of Integration and regionalism. The reasoning is intuitive; with free movement labour will gravitate to where there is effective demand thus alleviating the pressure where there is no effective demand. This is further buttressed by the industrial and merchant capital in the region being able to plan and invest in sectors in the Caribbean collectively thus spreading the risk and directing investment where it is most needed at preferential interest rates and sharing in the profits. The governance debate in the region is currently in abeyance. The lack of application of sound and consistent standards to the operation of the regions administrative business has prevented its ability to adapt to dynamic changes in the global economic environment. The belief therefore is that it should be revived, this time however in a manner which gives greater prominence to the development dimension and provides a broader interpretation of the elements of good governance (Payne and Sutton 2000). This will mean both more deliberative and purposive action by the state at the national and regional levels and more generally a reconsideration of the role of the state in the region. This brings into focus the Jamaica situation in handling the Coke affair. In so doing, the Commonwealth Caribbean must look beyond what Clive Thomas has described as the post colonial development state and the successor neo-liberal state (Thomas, 1998) to a new form of state with greater CSO involvement, a more supportive public sector and a wider vision, characteristics that are sadly lacking in a Caribbean that should know better given its colonial past and association with self serving hegemonic system. It must also be a more pro-active state, given the generally weak record of the private sector outside of a few enclaves in relatively few countries and the Trinidad and CLICO affair is bought into focus. The company was allowed to grow without regulatory control throughout the Caribbean; excuses were made from Trinidad to Barbados to Bahamas with the result being the disadvantage of the working class in the Caribbean. The key here is to build state capacity in state management and planning in addition to the delivery of more effective and efficient public services to its citizens. In short, the role played by the state in the process of governance is another matter that has to be rethought in every dimension if Commonwealth Caribbean development is to proceed. ( Payne and Sutton 2000) Globalisation is not a new problem to be solved and in as much as it is not new the solutions to the problem are just as illusive now as they were more than five hundred years ago. Indication of such a time line confirm that the Caribbean is in fact no stranger to the concept, the Caribbean has had a longer and more direct relationship with the modern economy than any other peripheral sections of the world. It must be noted that identifiable characteristics derive in large part from the extensity, intensity, velocity and impact of its interactions with the core countries of the world systems over the last five hundred years (Payne and Sutton, 2001: 11-20). It is therefore important that the concept is embraced and the extent to which the embrace is to be made articulated in clear and concise terms to the population. The debate and it must move from the realm of debate if it is to have meaningful impact on the way the Caribbean engages the rest of the world is the concept of Strategic Global Repositioning SGR a formula coined by Richard Bernal, Jamaican ambassador to the USA during most of the 1990s. He advanced this concept in a series of presentations from 1996 onwards, defining it as: a process of repositioning a country in the global economy and world affairs by implementing a strategic medium to long term plan formulated from continuous dialogue of the public service, private sector, academic community and the social sector. It involves proactive structural and institutional transformation (not adjustment) focussed on improvement and diversification of exports and international economic and political relations. Achieving SGR requires changes in both internal and external relations. (Bernal, 2000: 311). It required the following disparate and demanding actions: abandoning the traditional mind-set; diversifying exports; adjusting pro-actively; improving human resources; supplementing the skills pool with overseas nationals; developing strategic corporate alliances; creating a business-facilitating environment; improving physical infrastructure; modernising international marketing; and garnering capital, technology and skills (Bernal, 1996: 7-14). Although a vital role was obviously assigned to a dynamic private sector in this vision, SGR also envisaged an important redefinition of the capacity and purpose of the Caribbean state, with a view to making it more effective and generally bringing it into line with the good governance modalities of the PWC. The concept of SGR unquestionably struck a chord with mainstream Commonwealth Caribbean political leaders and was widely embraced, especially by Owen Arthur, the prime minister of Barbados, who gave it voice in a number of forceful speeches delivered in the latter part of the 1990s (Arthur, 1996; 1999). This lapse in economic prudence has left the island state with little option to attempt stabilization and hope that the global environment to which it is inextricably tied improves. In the preceding sections, the essay has had a long, critical look at the period of national recession, identifying the signs of the crisis and an analysis of the factors that might have caused the exposure of the national state. An important aspect of the discussion was the establishing the possible unprecedented nature of the crisis this was seen as important to give a historical land mark for discussion and a benchmark for future recommendations. These signs are not constrained exclusively to any one state and reflect the economic dynamic taking place at the particular time. ECLAC or the economic commission for Latin America and the Caribbean has been able to give a contextual framework by way of identifying the signs of the crisis and the overarching themes served as a bulkhead of both reasons for the crisis and possible solutions for the future. The essay to some extent has tried as well to draw a quantitative picture of the extent and nature of the crisis impact with reference to the research of Harewood and Davies and to a lesser extent Raymond. The signs as articulated by ECLAC begin with, the major findings from the existing literature nothing new to the Caribbean, the issues of financial contagion, excessive external borrowing, and reduction in foreign direct investment, external demand reduction of goods and services, reduced workersÃ¢â¬â¢ remittances as well as changes in relative prices (particularly commodity prices). First and foremost, in spite of differences in the vantage points chosen and the theoretical constructs utilised to explain these phenomenon interested observers generally grant that the underlying forces dictating progress in the Caribbean or lack thereof has had a strong element from within. Evidence was presented of failed IMF bailouts, ineffectual administrations, and questionable governance issues. It should be no surprise that academic within and without the Diaspora have raised their voices in opposition. In assessing the signs the positions taken by Davies and Thomas with respect of the class system brings into focus how Caribbean treat to each other and its contribution to the undermining of economic development. Where does the analysis lead by way of conclusion? The essay drew attention at the outset to the importance of Bernals argument about the Commonwealth Caribbeans need for strategic global repositioning, but argued that his formulation of this conception had not been given sufficient critical scrutiny within the region and thus remained underdeveloped intellectually and politically. We identified competitiveness, diplomacy and governance as the formative elements of SGR and have sought in this study to take the debate about SGR forward by working through in turn the key issues that arise in relation to these three policy agendas. They manifestly constitute the most pressing, and intractable, aspects of the Commonwealth Caribbeans current development problematic (Bernal 1996). They also feed off each other in a series of ways that have been repeatedly highlighted. : Eichengreen, Barry,. Financial Crises and What to Do about Them: New York, Oxford University Press, 2002. Peterson, L Willis,. Principles of Economics: IL 60430, Irwin Homewood, 199. Davies, Omar. 1986. The Debt problem in Jamaica: situation and solutions. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies, Dept. of Economics. Thomas, Y Clive. The Poor and the Powerless: Economic Policy and Change in the Caribbean London: Latin America Bureau, 1988) Williams, Eric, Capitalism ; slavery: Chapel Hill, Univers ity of North Carolina Press, 1944. Best, Lloyd. , The mechanisms of plantation-type economies: outlines of a model off pure plantation economy, Social and Economic Studies 17 (3): 283-323. Barry et al. The Other Side of Paradise. New York: Grove Press, Inc 1984. Harewood Henry.. Inequality in a post-colonial society :Trinidad and Tobago, St. Augustine, Trinidad : Institute of Social and Economic Research, The University of the West Indies. | | Payne and Sutton, Repositioning the Caribbean within Globalisation 2001: 11-20 Bernal, Richard. Strategic Global Repositioningand Future Economic Development in Jamaica, North-South Agenda Papers, no. 18, Dante B. Fascell North-South Center University of Miami. TITLE: Ã¢â¬Å"We are currently experiencing a near unprecedented period of national recession in almost every English Speaking Caribbean country. Ã¢â¬ Clearly identifying the signs of the crisis, what factors in your informed view account for the exposure of the national state to thi s current state of affairs? NAME: Jepter Y Lorde COURSE NAME: Caribbean Governance 1 COURSE NO. : GOVT 3017 INSTRUCTOR: Cynthia Barrow-Giles UNIVERSITY: University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus. DATE: 1st November 2011.
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Job eveluation - Research Paper Example The data collected by means of job evaluation and recapitulated in job descriptions has an array of uses in human resource management, neither of them more fundamental to the entire program of human resource than job assessment and pricing (Reda, 2002). Jointly, job evaluation, and job pricing determine what every job ought to pay. This guarantees that the pay is fair in two manners: internally, so that occupations that are moderately of larger value to the firm are paid more as compared to those of minimal value; and externally, So that rates rewarded to jobs in the firm are competitive with those remunerated by other organizations in the labor market for equivalent work. Job assessment establishes the comparative worth of a job with a different job or several others. It does not place pay rates that are the function of job pricing; relatively, it contrasts jobs with each other or gauges them against an average for instance, an Executive Secretary compared to a Stenographer, the Secretary is at a higher rank than the Stenographer. This sort of information is of importance to the firm since it acts as the basis for many elements in the program of human resource. Foremost, it carries over into the job pricing stage, with the outcome that, occupations of comparatively minimal value are awarded less pay (Rynes and Gerhart, 2000). Secondly, job evaluation identifies present wage inequalities. Job assessment exposes circumstances whereby occupations are not being paid in proportion to their comparative worth. Additionally, job evaluation offers the organization a system for allocating rates of wage to lately generated occupations compliant with their contribution to the organization (Kay, 2005). A novel occupation, for example, an E-mail Order Clerk, can be assessed and put in the apposite grade. This makes certain that the E-mail Clerk Order employed by the organization will be