Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Biodiversity Impact Of Invasive Plants In Tropical Biodiversity Biology Essay Tropical zone is the biodiversity hot spot (Briggs, 1996) about three-quarters of the worlds species are confined to the tropic of the world (Wilson, 1992). Though tropical forest ecosystems are more resistant to invasion by alien plants than other biome (Edward, 2009), they are exceedingly threatening by invasive species (Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, biotropica, 2010). Invasive species are creating significant challenges to the management and conservation of the indigenous biodiversity. The distribution of invasive plant species occurred at ecosystem level, community level and at the species level (Meyer et al., 2004). At least one exotic species is present in almost all tropical areas (Usher 1991). Invasive plants alter the local environment more favourable to them but less favourable to the native species (Hoffmann et al., 2004) and thus modified local ecosystem. Biological invasion has become a considerable economic, social, and particularly ecological problem of global impact (Cavalcante and Major, 2006). The important ecological impacts identified include reduction in native plant species richness, abundance and alternation in ecological function (Vitousek Walker, 1989; Adair Groves, 1998; Levine et al., 2003; Ogle, Reiners Gerow, 2003; Vila et al., 2006; Hejda, Pysek Jarosik, 2009 cited in Martin and Murray, 2010). Invasive plant species can covert the large area tropical vegetation to an exotic monoculture and greatly reduce the biodiversity, for example, the number of birds, mammals, tree seedlings were greatly reduced in Australia after the invasion of the area by alien plant species (Braithwaite et al. 1989) and Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) forms large, monotyp ic expanses, with Asia reporting over 35 million acres affected (Garrity et al. 1997). Invasive species are posing a serious threat to biodiversity (IUCN, 2000). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) has pointed that the impacts of invasive species on the tropical ecosystems are increasing rapidly. Similarly, recognizing the increasing issue of impact of invasive species, Convention on Biological Diversity, call on contracting parties to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate invasive species that threaten ecosystems, habitats and species Article 8 (h). This systematic review attempt to summarises, appraise and communicate the resultsÃ of the available studies to address the impact of invasive plants on tropical biodiversity. This protocol will provide a priori guide and allow scientific communities to comment on methodology and other relevant issues. Diverse studies are available related to impact of invasive plant species on tropical biodiversity. Some studies suggest that invasion of native vegetation by the non native plants does not always lead to decline in native biodiversity (e.g. Sax Gaines, 2003; Sax, Kinlan Smith, 2005). Biological invasions have been the subject of intensive ecological research during the last two decades (Fine 2001). Comprehensive studied have been done for many tropical forests e.g. the Hawaiian Islands (Fine, 2002) but some authors argues that the biological invasion research has generally ignored tropical forests ( Drake et al. 1989, Groves Burdon 1986, Williamson 1996 cited in Fine, 2002). In such contentious situation, it seems quite reasonable to syntheses these studies to improve the efficiency of the conservation efforts in preserving biodiversity of the tropics and develop a concrete evidence base on the impact of invasive species which will provide unbiased scientific evidence base to help decision-makers to decide and implement necessary policy intervention to stop further invasion of the tropical biodiversity and identify areas where evidence is lacking to direct research and funding on more crucial agendas. Objective of the review Primary question What are the effects of invasive plants on biodiversity of the tropical zone? Table 1: Definition of components of the primary systematic review question Subject Intervention Comparator Outcomes Biodiversity in the tropical zone Invasion by invasive plant species in tropical zone Biodiversity in forest, savannas or grassland before the invasion or any relevant or any relevant Any reported change in tropical biodiversity e.g. Species richness, abundance of native plant species, tree density Methods 3.1. Search Strategy Relevant published and unpublished literature and data will be collated by following strategy. Due to the resource constraints only English language literatures will be taken into consideration. 3.1.1 Scope of search I will use the following database search to retrieve the literatures and data ISI Web of Knowledge Science Direct Wiley InterScience Cambridge Journal Cab Direct CSA Biological Sciences Database (CSA/CIG)Ã BIOTROPICA In addition to grey literatures are searched in the website of relevant organization as listed in section 3.1.5 which helps to reveal important information about the tropical forestry and invasive species interaction. First searches are conducted on title, keyword and abstract basis and followed by full text searches. Hits are then checked for the relevance. 3.1.2 Search terms Effective and comprehensive list of related key words as described in the table -2 will be used to retrieve the literatures from the database specified above. Table 2: Search terms for review Subject term Intervention term combine with OR AND combine with OR Tropic* biodiversity Species richness Invas* plant non native plant exotic plant alien plant introduced plant Search term combinations Table: 3 Search term combinations and no of hits Key word 1 Key word 2 Total hits (Topic search) Refined hits in Web of science Tropic* biodiversity AND Invas* plant 54 Tropic* biodiversity AND Non native plant 32 Tropic* biodiversity AND exotic plant 74 Tropic* biodiversity AND alien plant 63 Tropic* biodiversity AND non-indigenous plant 07 Tropic* Species richness AND Invas* plant 38 Tropic* Species richness AND Non native plant 30 Tropic* Species richness AND exotic plant 60 Tropic* Species richness AND alien plant 34 Tropic* Species richness AND non-indigenous plant 04 tropical biodiversity AND (exotic plant) OR (invasive plant) OR(non native plant) OR (non indigenous plant) 7,109 425 No of hits and the retrieval of relevant literature varies between the data base searches, in the above table hits obtained by web of science is mentioned as an example. The same search tem combination give quite different hit in another database search, for example, for the first search term [tropic*biodiversity AND invas*plant] Cab direct retrieved 56 articles. In addition to the web of science the search databases mentioned in section 3.1.1 have been used in the preparation of this protocol and will also be used in final systematic review. 3.1.3 Specialist web sources will be conducted www.conservationevidence.com www.conserveOnline.org www.conservationevidence.org www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov 3.1.4. Internet Search The internet will be searched using the search engines. The first 70 hits for each search will be recorded and examined for relevance. www.google.com www.scholar.google.com www.scirus.com www.scientific.thomsonwebplus.com 3.1.5 Specialist agencies and organization data search At global level: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) IUCN/Invasive species specials group CABI- invasive species compendium Convention on biological diversity (CBD) International Weed Science Society (IWSS) UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) In addition to this regional level agencies and organization in tropical countries will also consulted. Asia: Association of Southeast Asian Nations , Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC) Invasive Alien Flora of India Weed Science Society of Japan Weed Science Society of China Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN) Australia: Invasive Species Council South America: Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network IABN Invasive Information Network 3.2. Study Inclusion criteria The relevant studies (articles, literatures, book sections) to be included in meta-analysis will be based in hierarchical judgment by first scanning the article titles followed by key words, abstracts and full text. The relevancy is determined by criteria as described below. If the data presented in the studies are not clear and needed to take more detailed description original authors and their respective organization will be contracted. Kappa analysis will be carried out for repeatability. Disputes between two reviewers will be solved by third independent reviewer. Geographical location: Study area of the relevant studies should be within the tropics (23.438Ã °S to 137 23.438Ã °N). 3.2.1. Relevant subjects: Any studies related to biodiversity changes in the tropical zone because of invasive plant species. 3.2.2. Types of intervention: Invasion of the tropical zone (forest land, agriculture land, grass land or savannas) by invasive plant species 3.2.3. Types of comparators: Any relevant studies and studies comparing the biodiversity of the tropical zone assessing before and after the effect of invasive plant species 3.2.4. Types of outcomes: Any study which shows biodiversity change (indicators like relative species richness or abundance) 3.2.5. Types of studies: Any study which describes qualitatively or quantitatively the effect of invasive plant species in the biodiversity (species richness, abundance) in forest land, grassland. Range land, agriculture land, savannas. Those studies which present comparison of before and after the invasion or the comparison of the proportion of exotic species to native species will be included. Studies can be articles in peer reviewed journals, book chapters or grey literatures 3.3. Potential effect modifier and reasons for heterogeneity Different edaphic, biotic, topographic and climatic condition which governs the vegetation type of the tropics such as soil quality, altitude, aspects, forest types and intensity of human disturbances which may respond to plant invasions in different ways affect the study outcomes. Furthermore, the biological characteristics of the invasive species also affect the study. 3.4. Study quality assessment The searched articles, grey literatures and documents will be assesses according to the previously designed study inclusion criteria. These are then checked independently for validity, reliability and applicability. A Quality assessment checklist is developed as shown below with the consultation of the review team and will be amended after stakeholders feedbacks. Internal and external validity will be checked using a set of criteria. Table 4: Quality assessment checklist for checking validity, reliability and applicability Variables Yes No 1 Target population and intervention defined 2 Sample representative 3 Experimental design/randomization 4 Base line information 5 Valid data collection 6 Description of confounding factors 7 Applicability of the research 8 Any biases Source: Adapted from class notes, 2010 and literature review 3.5. Data extraction strategy Qualitative and quantities information will be extracted from the studies included for the review. Information on invasive species, their effects on tropical biodiversity (species richness, abundance and competition) will be extracted in to a specially designed extraction form as shown in annex-1. Where data are available, data will be extracted as before and after data and other data will be extracted as appropriate. 3.6. Data synthesis and presentation Data synthesis method will be determined by the availability of the data and data type. The studies will be grouped according to the type of information available e.g. review article, original research. If sufficient quantitative information is available meta-analysis will be conducted to know the significance of the effect of invasive plant species to the tropical biodiversity. If in sufficient quantitative information is available qualitative analysis of evidence will be undertaken.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
In the course of reading Chapter 1 of our book, I came across something that I have known all along but taken for granted, as though it was not more important than my upcoming doctor’s appointment. It is the simple yet breaking fact that I do not know what I believe in, or rather, I know what I believe, but I don’t exactly know why I believe. And I am not alone in my plight. Most Filipinos, unfortunately, are guilty of this folly. We all have faith in God, not because we know the Sacred Scriptures to the letter, not because we know and live the Word. We believe because, quite simply put, we were brought up in Catholic households, and educated in Catholic schools, and what sticks to our minds is that to be a good Christian, we must have faith in God. We get too extreme about it at times and take things too literally that we miss too many points. To be fair, our faith is “genuine';, as the book also said. We truly believe in God and we all try to live as good Catholics: mass every Sunday, rosary with the family every night, we go to confession and retreats, and we pray when we wake in the morning and before going to bed. But sadly, other than those “routine'; elements of being Christian, most of us do not really understand what the Bible says, or what the priests are preaching, or what really is the will of God. Neither do we involve ourselves with other people who are part of the Church. Not to mention, how we seem to think less of non-Catholics, instead of trying to share what we are all supposed to know, the Word of God. A friend told me about a conversation he had, the other person saying that non-Christians will never enter the kingdom of God. He was dead serious when he said this, which made me wonder if we, in fact, are better than the non-believers, or if we are any different at all. I can say with a clear conscience, because I believe it to be true, that I have faith in God. What I cannot reconcile myself with, is the undeniable fact that I lack insight into what I believe in. I will not be able to go out and tell another person about how the Spirit liberates me, because even as I know this, I do not completely understand it.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Barbie Doll The Common Women Poems, III. Nadine, resting on her neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s stoop By Marge Piercy This girlchild was born as usual and presented dolls that did pee-pee and miniature GE stoves and irons and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy. Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said: You have a great big nose and fat legs. She was healthy, tested intelligent, possessed strong arms and back, abundant sexual drive and manual dexterity. She went to and fro apologizing. Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs. She was advised to play coy, exhorted to come on hearty, exercise, diet, smile and wheedle.Her good nature wore out like a fan belt. So she cut off her nose and her legs and offered them up. In the casket displayed on satin she lay with the undertaker's cosmetics painted on, a turned-up putty nose, dressed in a pink and white nightie. Doesn't she look pretty? everyone said. Consummation at last. To every woman a happy ending. MassÃ¢â¬â¢ Constructs The MassÃ¢â¬â¢ C onstruction or the matters which related to power relation and domination by Michel Foucault might be applied into the poem of Ã¢â¬ËBarbie Doll? by Marge Piercy. Clearly could be seen, the victim from the poem are exactly a woman.While sheÃ¢â¬â¢s only a kid, the topic of MassÃ¢â¬â¢ Construction is strongly applied into the theme and atmosphere of the poem. As Michel Foucault stated in his Ã¢â¬ËPower/KnowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢, the stronger one person the bigger his position to influence the weaker opposites. For Michel Foucault it is through discourse (through knowledge) that we are created. If we are the sum of our experiences (the knowledge we encounter), then those in control of our early life experiences have enormous power. In an isolated family, a child's knowledge depends upon just a few people. In a sense, those few people create the child's identity.From Power and Knowledge, comes Ã¢â¬ËDiscipline and PunishÃ¢â¬â¢ for the littlegirl. That these reorganizations of knowledg e were also intertwined with new forms of power and domination. The littlegirl cannot attempt to learn anything but what is communicated by them by her society. This is what the little girl had experienced in the poem. Not mentioning she is a little girl, it doubles the oppression she should endure in order to get accepted by this MassÃ¢â¬â¢ Construct society. Thus, this one-sided ideal to construct a woman theme might synergic with the Power/Knowledge as well as Discipline and Punish which both are coined by Michel Foucault.This tragic poem depicts the struggle of a little girl which surrounded by the all-controlling society. To control something, one side/individual definitely have power to execute it. It is practiced by how the society constructed the girl who only knows the beauty of the doll which sheÃ¢â¬â¢s play with. While this is also could be seen as kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ innocent activity, the idea of parents give their daughter a Ã¢â¬Ëbarbie dollÃ¢â¬â¢ might be interpreted as the act of power controlling. Parents, who are the closest part of society towards the kids inarguably, took the first role in controlling the little girls.This girlchild was born as usual and presented dolls that did pee-pee and miniature GE stoves and irons and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy. What the parents and society knows are that girls should act as a Ã¢â¬ËgirlÃ¢â¬â¢ by their only own point of view. And it has been done by presented her with the typical girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ toy in a form of dolls. They are not only ordinary dolls in usual, but the dolls were concluded with their domestic tools, Ã¢â¬Ëand miniature GE stoves and ironsÃ¢â¬â¢. It has been shown implicitly on how society sees woman and how to treat one.And as a woman, one should shows the Ã¢â¬ËbeautyÃ¢â¬â¢ by the line Ã¢â¬Ëand wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy. Ã¢â¬â¢ If not red, cherry candies are pink colored, the color which depicts the soft sides of the women. When it is correlated to the facts of Power/Knowledge by Foucault, this is the part where the basic knowledge of the society towards women is exactly the same with what the poem described. And because Ã¢â¬ËThis girlchild was born as usualÃ¢â¬â¢, she should acted as one. It is ironic when the quotation above connected to the very next lines on the same stanza.Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said: You have a great big nose and fat legs. The breakdown of the littlegirl started here. The picture of dolls (Barbie doll) had planted since she was kid by their parents. The relationship between peers at school also played a great role to build an identity of one person. And those peers of the littlegirl also one of the societies which construct the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Unconsciously, she should know by now what kind of girl which boys/students from these lines who represented society preferred are.This is how the image of Barbie doll became the solid mental picture of perfect woman craved within the girl. Her place as the minority who surrounded by the construction of society has grown a guilty feeling inside the littlegirl. This might be caused by how she tried to show her good self as a woman so the society wanted to accept her existence. The strong proofs for this point are as mentioned on these lines: She went to and fro apologizing. Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs. Ã¢â¬ËEveryone saw a fat nose on thick legs. Ã¢â¬â¢ Line are kept repeating itself.This is the indication that the problems which the society looked down towards the girl are pretty severe because they cannot tolerate it. They are cannot bear the truth that this littlegirl are not quite woman enough on their sights. Those nose and legs are always the bold worst points for the society to accuse, and to show the littlegirl that woman should not have an appearance such hers. A line before that also draws the littlegirl submission against the society. A mere apology are not enough because the false power w hich applied by society is a must rule for the littlegirl to obey.This all are caused by the position of littlegirl which make her cannot voice her heart. To prove that she is inferior against them who hold the knowledge to dominate every insight of the littlegirl. Thus, practicing the power relation towards the defenseless littlegirl. But the littlegirl are not a failure as her society has accused. The very first lines on second stanza, especially the line Ã¢â¬ËShe was healthy, tested intelligent, possessed strong arms and back,Ã¢â¬â¢ are indicated that she has everything that human existence could muster.Every aspects of her life are the things that needed to actively blend into every mantle of society. She was Ã¢â¬Ëtested intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢, she might offer a helps for teaching people in the future, or Ã¢â¬Ëpossessed strong arms and back,Ã¢â¬â¢ to do some more harder works to accomplish such as an athlete or adventurer. She could do almost anything in the near future because Ã¢â¬ËShe was healthy. Ã¢â¬â¢ From those proofs alone, she is the one of human woman who could do anything he would like. She has everything whether to be a socialist or liberalist individual with everything she has got.But again, due to the repetitive use of Ã¢â¬ËEveryone saw a fat nose on thick legs,Ã¢â¬â¢ those all positive aspects of the littlegirl are concealed within. The construction which applied by the society has hazed away those irrefutable prospects of hers. The first line of third stanza started with the deceitful construction to construct not only their way of thinking but also how women should act in normal way. To show the fitness, beauty, without any indication of lacking things as a woman. Synergistically with the Power/Knowledge relation, the aspects of womanÃ¢â¬â¢s construction also could be applied with FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s Discipline and Punish.In his Discipline and Punish, however, the eighteenth-nineteenth century transformation of the human sci ences was explicitly set in the context of practices of discipline, surveillance, and constraint, which made possible new kinds of knowledge of human beings even as they created new forms of social control. Rouse, in his Ã¢â¬Å"Power/KnowledgeÃ¢â¬ , directly stated that perhaps the most important transformation that Foucault described was in the scale and continuity of the exercise of power, which also involved much greater knowledge of detail.Foucault was interested in the difference between massive but infrequent exercises of destructive force (public executions, military occupations, the violent suppression of insurrections) and the uninterrupted constraints imposed in practices of discipline and training: Ã¢â¬Å"It was a question not of treating the body, en masse, Ã¢â¬Ëwholesale,' as if it were an indissociable unity, but of working it Ã¢â¬Ëretail,' individually; of exercising upon it a subtle coercion, of obtaining holds upon it at the level of the mechanism itself Ã¢â¬ â movements, gestures, attitudes, rapidity: an infinitesimal power over the active body. Other ways of exercising force can only coerce or destroy their target. Discipline and training can reconstruct it to produce new gestures, actions, habits and skills, and ultimately new kinds of people. Ã¢â¬Å"The human body was entering a machinery of power that explores it, breaks it down and rearranges itÃ¢â¬ ¦. It defined how one may have a hold over others' bodies, not only so that they may do what one wishes, but so that they may operate as one wishes, with the techniques, the speed and the efficiency that one determines. Thus discipline produces subjected and practiced bodies, Ã¢â¬Å"docileÃ¢â¬ bodies. (Rouse, 2005) Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦So that they may operate as one wishes, with the techniques, the speed and the efficiency that one determines. Ã¢â¬â¢ Rouse opinion regarding the Power and Discipline which applied to the girl by the society Ã¢â¬Ëbreaks it down and and rearranges itÃ¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Since the littlegirl presented a Barbie doll, at that time precisely, she had been constructed and her identity had been arranged. When the girl feels the bigger role of her peers at school, the big construction of society had broke down her capacities as the girl who is capable in many departments as mentioned on the second stanza.Then the society reconstructed it many times as in the beginning of the third stanza. She was advised to play coy, exhorted to come on hearty, exercise, diet, smile and wheedle. Everything that the society gives to her is the methods in how the society tried to constructed her into the way they should see a woman. Ã¢â¬Ëto play coy, exhorted to come on hearty, exercise, diet, smile and wheedle. Ã¢â¬â¢ To live in submission and acted under the rule of them to be a perfect woman. The tragic ends show the break-free of the littlegirl from the clutch of MassÃ¢â¬â¢ Construction.Everything that she have to chose her own way of live has been ma nipulated, so to speak, constructed and rearranged. The way the girl ended her life is not the way for her having a choice in the end, but the act to show how the power of society are relentless and how little the choices for they who has under the oppression of it had had. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Rouse, Joseph, Ã¢â¬Å"Power/KnowledgeÃ¢â¬ (2005). Division I Faculty Publications. Paper 34. http://wesscholar. wesleyan. edu/div1facpubs/34
Friday, January 3, 2020
The absolute biggest threat that our world faces today is global mass corruption. A comprehensive report suggests that Afghanistan, Somalia, and North Korea are among worst regions in terms of corruption. Transparency International is the firm in which has established the Corruption Perceptions Index. The index is based on the collaborated global professional opinion of many intellects in order to define the measured perceived levels of public sector corruption. The score a nation receives in the report determine just how corrupt it may be. The index scores range from 0-100. A score of zero would indicate absolute corruption. Conversely, a score of 100 would indicate a minimal or tolerable amount of corruption that may seem unnoticed. Not even one nation scored a perfect 100. Only a few came with in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s-100 range, and they just so happened to be in the extra low 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. The average score globally among all countries was a frightening 43 on the index, signifying mass worldwide corruption. In fact, 68 percent of the countries scored below the middle range score of 50 on the index. This figure amounts to 6 billion people that are living in areas with a major corruption issue. I will be focusing on the three countries who had the lowest and most embarrassing CPI scores. http://www.voanews.com/a/report-lists-somalia-north-korea-as-worlds-most-corrupt-countries/3164430.html Gross corruption in Afghanistan has been well documented. A report that studied the rampant corruptionShow MoreRelatedStrenghts and Weaknesses of the South African Economy5649 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesWeaknesses of South African Economy Introduction In some ways South Africa is like all other countries, in other ways it is like some others, and in its own, unique way it is like no other country. 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