Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Financial Management Individual Work 1 Week 6 Essay

Financial Management Individual Work 1 Week 6 - Essay Example In this case, operating leverage reflects the intensification of the upper part of the revenue statement with the fixed costs being the costs of business procedure and that are not affected by alterations in sales. Within financial and income aspects of any business, working income is a component of business risk. For instance, with two indistinguishable firms and one firm utilizes higher operating advantage with all other things remaining constant, the firm experiences less predictable return on asset and operating income, and this results to elevated risks to the business. With an elevated business threat, the stock- and bondholder are affected (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2010). Financial leverage involves the degree of utilization of fixed charge securities within the capital structure of a given firm. High financial leverage occurs when the capital structure of a firm is characterized by elevated debts and preferred stock. In this case, the extent of entity sales characterized by equal costs and revenue presents the breakeven point and breakeven analysis can be done with or without financial costs (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2010). This way, the financial leverage represents the underside half of the revenue statement entails changes in EPS relative to alterations of EBIT. Financial leverage accounts for some aspect of corporation risk through debt financing. Through debt financing, a business is prone to variations in earnings prior to taxation after interests thus elevating earnings per share and the net income. Corporate risk is thus a summation of business risk and financial risk. Modigliani and Miller revealed that whether leveraged or not, firms should have equal value in the absence of taxes and other costs. Further, organizational value and weighted standard capital costs will be free of the capital structure (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2010). Consequently, constant

Monday, October 28, 2019

Contribution Of Summitry To Diplomatic Practice Politics Essay

Contribution Of Summitry To Diplomatic Practice Politics Essay In 1919, diplomatic practice as the world had known it was about to change. This change would be brought about by a culmination of factors, including but not limited to: advances in communication and transportation technology, the ending of WWI and, most notably, the coming together of world leaders at the inaugural Paris Peace Conference in January 1919. Two precedents were set during this conference: the establishment of the League of Nations (precursor to the United Nations) and the invention of the summit as a way of engaging in international diplomatic negotiations (Finch, 1919, p. 161). In this paper I shall focus on the effect of the latter on diplomatic practice nowadays. The conference is a good starting point when examining the role of summits in modern day diplomacy. Yes, leaders of government and heads of state had been meeting for years (Goldstein, 1996, pp. 23-25), but many leaders and delegates congregating on a global scale was truly a new phenomenon, one that would c hange the practice of diplomacy forever. In order to truly analyze the contribution of summitry, or the practice of engaging in summits to negotiate important issues, first, I shall examine the history of modern day summitry from its early beginnings at the aforementioned Peace Conference as well as the rise and unprecedented growth of summits as an option to solve a diverse range of global issues. I will scrutinize select past summits to see if they illustrate the effects of summitry. Then I will look at the broad picture and explain summitrys overall contribution to diplomatic practice. In the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, which was a twin byproduct of Woodrow Wilsons 14 points speech and Germanys desire to negotiate, the shape of diplomacy and international governance was changed forever with the establishment of the United Nations. This overshadowed the real reason the conference had been held: negotiations between the allied powers and the losers of WWI (Finch, 1919, p. 161). The conference also had another unintended consequence: the creation of the summit. A summit is, by definition, a meeting of heads of government to negotiate important or pressing issues. Summits can be planned yearly occurrences or impromptu conferences or meetings in which political leaders (at the highest level) meet for political purposes (Dunn, 1996, p. 20). In the resolution to create the League of Nations the following article states: 3. The members of the League should periodically meet in international conference, and should have a permanent organization and secretariat to carry on the business of the League in the intervals between the conferences (Finch, 1919, p. 170). This shows a concerted effort towards the establishment of using an annual international conference (i.e., summit) to resolve issues between states and to facilitate negotiations on pertinent issues. While the conference set the precedent of a diverse group of states meeting to discuss multiple issues, it also served the major world powers at the time. Under the name of the Council of Four, the USA, France, Great Britain and Italy were the only delegates to be meeting constantly throughout the entire conference, regardless of other sessions going on (Finch, 1919, p. 176). This demonstrates that the international balance was going to be maintained no matter how many other countries were invited to participate. This small allowance of extra importance and ability afforded by the conference allowed the diplomatic process of the past its first introduction to the impending paradigm shift. Traditional diplomacy (that of diplomats meeting diplomats) would meet its future where, much more often than used to be the case, heads of state themselves would do the negotiating and would meet with other delegates and representatives. This was the precise situation at the Peace Conference with President Wilson (USA), President Poincarà © (French Republic), Prime Minister Lloyd George (Great Britain) and Prime Minister Baron Sonnino (Italy), the Council of Four all in attendance, and participating in the negotiation of multiple issues (Finch, 1919, p. 168). This Council became the precursor to the G-5 who would come to dominate not only international relations but also diplomatic practice in general. The rise of summitry since that initial conference in 1919 has been astounding. There have been uncountable summits since 1919; the commonplace nature of their use has grown along with their importance. Summits have covered a multitude of issues and spanned regions and countries across the globe. In fact, it did not take long for the idea of summitry to take hold. Spurned by the outstanding representation of the original countries delegates, a conference convened in the United States in 1921-22. Although not as successful as the Paris Peace Conference, it still paved the way for future summits (Goldstein, 1996, p. 32). President Franklin Roosevelt followed Wilsons lead and attended multiple summits abroad thereby establishing the precedent of leaders of government venturing out to change foreign policy personally through their own diplomacy (Goldstein, 1996, p. 33). These two were the first in a long line of world leaders who would, through their interactions, negotiations and conferences at many sites around the world, help to shape not only the content but the process of diplomacy. While the focus of summitry over the years tended to be on the United States and the concessions that they intended to bring to the table, Europe has played a big part in the growth of summitry as a whole. In fact, the May 1960 Paris Summit between Russia, France and the USA focused on future European expansion issues and the direction and structure of NATO. It resolved key issues between America and Russia and led to drastic changes in Franco-American and Russo-American attitudes (Varat p. 102). The obstinate behavior and actions of Eisenhower, Khrushchev and de Gaulle, caused the eventual drastic failure of the negotiations, but despite this the summit itself would help to shape the history of diplomacy. The following passage describes what happened before the con ference closed: On 16 May, however, Khrushchev delivered the killing stroke to both the current summit and future ones when he launched into an overwrought tirade against American perfidy, berating Eisenhower for violating Soviet sovereignty and accusing him of wanting to start World War III (Varat, 2008, p. 105). The Hague Summit, December 1969, had an important impact on the future direction of summitry in Europe and is notable because it ratified summitry as a successful policy tool. Among other things, this summit was responsible for the creation of the European Monetary Union, negotiations on the enlargement of the European Union, and European political cooperation (Redmond, 1996, p. 54). This summit led to the decision, eventually to be brought forth and instituted at the Paris Summit in 1974, that it should institutionalize and regularize EU summits and hold them three times per year [although I should note that this practice was ended in 1985] (Redmond, 1996, p. 55). At the same time that European summitry was starting to stamp its influence on the diplomatic world, the then- recently un-colonized continent of Africa was beginning to recognize and utilize the process as well. From 1963 onwards, there has been a summit of African nations at least once a year, used to show unity on the continent and also to negotiate issues of importance to African states. This first conference in 1963 was held in Ethiopia, and is considered the most important African conference of the time, with 27 heads of government present and also creating the Organization of African Unity (Hodder-Williams, 1996, p. 136). Although, as Richard Hodder-Williams points out, there had been many meetings and groupings of African leaders dating back to 1918, this Organization and conference in 1963, showed the changing leadership and political dynamics in Africa as a whole (1996, p. 137). From these early beginnings until now, where summits cover a wide range of international problems (non state and state issues), the rise of involvement of summits in the area of international diplomatic negotiations and interactions has been phenomenal. The precursor to the present conference on Climate Change (in Copenhagen in December 2009) was the Earth Summit which was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June of 1992. It was, at the time, the biggest summit ever held, with 183 countries and over 40,000 observers and delegates participating in the process. The United Nations sponsored the event and the goal was to bring together as many world leaders as possible to help come to grips with, and hopefully put in place universal measures to tackle the problem, environmental degradation and destruction (Lanchberry, 1996, p. 222). The ability of leaders of many countries to come together (mind you with lots of advanced planning and negotiations) and recommend solid policy proposals (sometimes) for the world to adopt should not be underestimated when considering the effect of summitry in the diplomatic process (Lanchberry, 1996, p. 235-239). The Earth Summit is representative of many of the summits that take place every year and which cover a multitude of issues. Most notably, the way in which the media, world leaders, NGOs, and others attempted to come together for a common goal, even if the results appear watered down or dont go far enough when translated to policy, shouldnt alter the fact that leaders were able to coordinate their efforts, however briefly, to negotiate (or attempt to negotiate) binding policy. Two cases which help illustrate some of the highs and lows of the process of summitry are the International Landmine Treaty Ban and the G7/G8 failed summit in Hokkaido, Japan in 2008. The first illustrates the successes that can be achieved by summitry and some of the good decisions and processes that can occur along the way, while the other shows that sometimes diplomacy should be left to diplomats, not inexperienced negotiators (aka world leaders) who in the end just make a royal mess of things. In the span of just under five years, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) went from being an NGO awareness group, to being the key catalyst in the signing of a worldwide treaty to ban landmines (as well as the coordinator, Jody Williams, receiving the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts) (Leguey-Felliux, 2009, p. 122). The non-profit group used intuition and keen planning to pressure the international community to enforce the changes that needed to be made. The UN landmine conference in Geneva in April of 1996, helped to initiate momentum towards the final end goal of a worldwide treaty as well as provide a platform from which NGOs and future governments could use to conduct the delicate negotiations needed to bring about the treaty (Leguey-Felliux, 2009, p. 124). The ICBL and the international community danced back and forth over the issue, by way of multiple conferences, all centered on the issue of banning landmines from the worlds stage. It was through the pressure of the NGOs present at these conferences acting under the coordination of the ICBL, coupled with the media pressure that caused lobbying and negotiations to turn into signatures on a treaty. With the world watching, and with more names (countries) being added to the treaty as the years passed and the conferences were convened, the pressure would slowly build on the remaining leaders to change their position and get with the times. The final summit was convened in the first week of December 1997 in Ottawa, Canada. It served the dual purpose of not only adding the final necessary and desired signatures to the treaty, but also helped fundraise and plan the implementation stages for the actual removal of landmines (Leguey-Felliux, 2009, p. 128). This was quite a feat considering that it started with an NGO using an opportune moment to seize upon the chance to remedy a serious social problem, and ended with government officials and heads of state negotiating po licies that would allow the world to not only ban landmines but also start removing the existing ones. This summit showed not only coordination of different groups and countries, but also global governmental cooperation and negotiation on an important issue. But this summit could be viewed as an exception, and was chosen as an example specifically because of the incredible tangible results that it managed to achieve. At the exact opposite end of the spectrum in terms of output or tangible results I have chosen to examine the G8 Summit in Hokkaido, Japan in July 2008 as a good example of hype and bluster beforehand not quite equaling results afterward. In the run up to the summit, there was optimism abounding from journals, economists and academics alike. A press briefing ahead of the Presidents trip to Japan as well as a report issued by the World Bank in preparation for the conference help to illustrate this optimism. The President of the United States prepared for the Hokkaido summit by using the briefings given by his senior economic, Asian and environmental advisors to explicitly lay out the agenda of the summit as well as the individual bilateral meetings and the working lunches that would take place with many countries at the table (Press Briefing 7/1/2008). Some of the key issues that needed focusing on were climate change, HIV/AIDS and poverty; the working lunches and bilateral meetings were to provide the setting for the international negotiations needed to solve these truly international problems. The Presidents advisors were not the only ones preparing briefings before the summit to help formulate a path to successful negotiations and outcomes, however; the World Bank along with others was also drafting pre-summit reports. The World Bank chose a different path from that chosen by the President. In their report Double Jeopardy: Responding to High Food and Fuel Prices, the World Bank illustrated the specific link between food prices and high oil prices and their effect on poverty by introducing a 10 point plan for the G8 to adopt (World Bank Report, July 2, 2008, p. 2). In this thorough report (which itself is evidence of the importance placed on this summit by the World Bank), there are specific policy recommendations as well as statistics illustrating the correlation between poverty, fuel and food prices (World Bank Report, July 2, 2008, pp. 2-5, 21-27). Using these two different entities preparedness and seriousness as a barometer the outlook for the summit should have been positive. So what actually happened? The title of The Economists review of the summit pretty much says it all: they came, they jawed, they failed to conquer (A mountain-top gabfest provided a spectacular show and a long guest list but few answers to the woes of the world) (Economist, 7/12/2008, p. 68-69). The summit proved to be rather futile in the end, but served the minimal purpose that most summits now serve, as a preparatory meeting for the next summit, sometime in the future. In the case of the Climate Change portions of the Hokkaido summit, some useless platitudes and posturing indicated that everyone was waiting for the Copenhagen Summit on in 2009. This is the new evolved summit: an opportunity for world leaders to sit face to face for a somewhat extended period of time, under media pressure to plan for another meeting in the future. This endless future planning is not actually useless; it should be thought of as one long protracted negotiation. The issue at hand will be resolved or policies produced to find solutions sometime in the future, at some future summit. It has been ninety years since the Peace Conference in Paris and the idea and practice of summitry has evolved drastically as well as becoming interwoven into the practice of diplomacy. The summit is seen as a negotiating arena, a useful public relations tool, and a chance to renew and reaffirm relationships with other states; more than this it has been a platform for further negotiations on some extremely important global issues. Summits can be successful sometimes and unsuccessful other times, but whichever outcome materializes in the end, the foundation for future negotiations will be laid. The summit pervades the world of diplomacy and its effects are seen in the conduct, preparedness, and seriousness of NGOs, world leaders, and other delegates in regards to their relationship with summitry.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Euthanasia as One of Todays Most Prevalent Ethics Issues Essay

Euthanasia as One of Todays Most Prevalent Ethics Issues   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Euthanasia can be considered one of the most prevalent problems when dealing with the ethics of patient treatment. Should people have the right to end their own lives when prolonging it will only cause them more pain? Should families who love someone so much, that they don’t want to lose them, cause them more pain by keeping them alive. What makes that more ethically correct then letting them die? The more you look into this issue the more you see how contradictory people are when it comes to making these decisions. This paper shows the issue in a more detailed manner, gives some background, shows the effects on modern society and explains briefly my standpoint on the subject.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The practice of euthanasia dates back as far as the dawn of civilization itself. In the past it was an easy subject to deal with because technology didn’t permit nearly as much life sustentation. When health problems, such as, diabetes and high blood pressure were causes of death, it wasn’t such a controversial issue in society. Now that we have the knowledge along with medical equipment to keep people alive, the issue has developed into a more difficult one to deal with. However, the issues surrounding euthanasia are not only of death, they are about ones liberty, right to privacy and control over his or her, own body. Currently under U.S. law, there are clear differences between the two different types of euthanasia. Extraction of life support, referred to by some as passive euthanasia has been exclusively upheld by the courts as a lawful right of a patient to request and a permissible act for a doctor to perform. Physician-assisted death, referred to by some as active euthanasia is specifically prohibited by laws in most countries and American states banning "mercy killings" and is condemned by the American Medical Association.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Active Euthanasia is thought of by most to be morally wrong and punishable by law. Yet, mercy has been held as a high moral by most civilizations in history. Now we punish anyone who assists someone else in suicide, out of their own mercy. During the 21-month trial period of a new law anyone assisting in a suicide can be sentenced to up to four years in prison and fined more than $2,000 (1). Physicians have been and will continue to be prosecuted for the murder of patients wh... ...etroit Free Press (December 11, 1990)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -Herbert Hendin, "Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Netherlands:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lessons from the Dutch," Journal of the American Medical Association (June   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4, 1997 p. 1720-1722) -USA Today, 1998 -Matter of Quinlan ( -Cruzan v. Director, DMH 497 U.S. 261 (1990) ( -Exploring constitutional conflicts, â€Å"The right to die† ( -Colesanto, D, â€Å"The right-to-die controversy,† USA Today (May, 1991 pp. 62-63). -Derek Humphry, Frequently Asked Questions; Right to Die. ERGO! ( -About Hemlock ( - Alister Browne, Understanding Euthanasia: Should Canadians Amend The Criminal Code? (September 26, 1994) -David J Roy, When the Dying Demand Death; A Position Paper On Euthanasia, (Undated) -Mark Twain - The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of the Extraordinary Twins

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Promotional Material Essay

Before we created our promotional materials such as posters, leaflets and flyers, we had to make sure that we were able to find a suitable price in which we can budget according to our finances. During our research, we were able to locate a suitable printing agency in which we could print our promotional materials in bulk, so we could hand out in the local area to help promote the business. The advantage of the agency we chose for printing our material was that they were able to print our promotional materials within 2 working days and that any deliveries that took place could be tracked on the website when u log on to it, this to make sure that the delivery is going according to plan. By selecting the amount we though would be appropriate for this campaign, we were able to locate the price in which it would cost us as an advertising agency if that amount were to be printed out. Promotional Material Leaflets We used leaflets to ensure customers the products that the cafà © will be selling in their local cafà ©. The leaflet we designed had a bright Italian background (in the form of the Italy colours), indicating immediately to the consumer that the cafà © is Italian based, which is probably the most important factor to inform the customer about. We made sure that the leaflet was specifically designed and had the relevant information such as the location of the cafà © and the products that the cafà © were going to sell. This is vital to clear as misleading customers about products that the cafà © doesn’t sell could lead to the business losing customers. We also had to include contact information so that customers could maybe phone in the cafà © to order food or to see whether the cafà © is open. We used pictures so that consumers are able to get a feel of some of the products that the cafà © has on offer. We placed this on the front (main) side of the leaflet so that it is eye catching to the consumer as soon as they see the leaflet. We made 1500 printout leaflets as they can be easily distributed around the local area and are the most common method of promotion used by a business of a similar stature. Leaflets could be posted through letter boxers to the people around the local area so it increases the chance of the consumer actually noticing and reading the leaflet This can help achieve the business objectives of achieving 30 customers daily as by using this type of promotion, in the form of leaflets, the business is virtually trying to attract more customers to shop at the cafà © and build more customer awareness of the cafà ©. If the business has more customers, they could achieve their aim of breaking even in the first year. However, a drawback of using a leaflet was that it proved to be the most costly in terms of production as we were charged at 11p per leaflet. Posters The posters we designed were again Italian based but had to limit the amount of information we could put on the poster due to lack of space. This was one of the drawbacks of using a poster but could be just as effective as using the leaflet. However, the production of the poster was the cheapest at just 4.5 per poster. This came at a surprise as we thought that the poster was to be more expensive than the rest of the promotional material. The content we had on the poster had o be very basic but had to send the message across to consumers of the products that the cafà © may sell if they came to visit. The drawback of creating a poster was that it was very time consuming as first we had to make a draft copy, then were we able to form the main copy in which was going to be used for distribution. The use of pictures made it more eyes catching for the consumer and the contents that were stated were the basic products that the cafà © were going to sell. The reason behind this decision was that we believed that consumers would be more likely to read a poster that had a limited amount of writing on the poster rather than having a ‘jammed’ pack poster full of writing and fewer pictures. By just stating the important points and more use of pictures proved to be more eye catching for us and potential consumers. This could help achieve the aims of this organisation as students and working class people could notice this poster when they shop at local newsagents or public areas when they go to work or college. Although these won’t be distributed to houses like leaflets, they will be situated at public areas such as on buses or some of the local shops nearby. This would increase customer awareness of the business on a whole or be a drawback as some people like the elderly who do not shop as often as other student are more likely to miss the poster rather than students who walk past on a day to day basis.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Marketing plan in mortgage services

Owning a home is an American dream that mortgage services is positioned to a lucrative business investment.   However, there are several factors that influence market decisions where market research can be useful.   One important area is researching about the historical and forecasted changes in market value.   When values are expected to rise, the firm has greater potential to be successful in its expansion plan.   People are motivated to mortgage home purchase when there is a likely price gain.Similarly valuable is to determine other economic indicators such as trends of wage rate, income taxes and also mortgage rate, down payment and monthly payment limits.   In expanding to four other states, there may be local policies and regulations that can modify economic characteristics from Idaho which could trigger different marketing strategies.   For example, declining salaries in one state can reduce ability of the market to pay monthly installments.There are also other alt ernatives to purchasing a primary or secondary home that minimizes the market for mortgage services.   In effect, the advantages and disadvantages of decision substitutes should be compared to home mortgage.   Factors to consider are the costs and tax benefit of home improvements, profitability of real estate investment trust (REIT) and buying-versus-renting performance.   There might be a need for the firm to search for other lenders that can offer more attractive provisions to outweigh the benefits of decisions substitutes.For example, longer mortgage period may be necessary to bring down monthly installments and be competitive to comparative monthly rental fees.   It is also helpful to gather information on population mobility (i.e. tendency to transfer to other states or countries) or the visitor performance on the four states.   When they are people have high mobility or the state does not receive substantial visits, the location is less attractive for homeowners whic h can suggest new strategies to the firm.Marketing MediumIn its expansion, the company is required to inform the market of its existence including its market position and branding.   Inability to establish good faith credentials to the market can lead to business failure.   It can tap useful business partners.   Local authorities and agencies that administer the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and Veterans Administration (VA) loans are the primary channels of the firm since it offer services for FHA and VA loans.The firm can be also referred by home sellers to their clients which can lead to a win-win situation for all parties.   The company and home sellers can develop their market while clients are provided with value-added services with the opportunity to get financial support.   REIT and landlords can also supply the needed campaign because they too necessitate home appraisal for investment decisions.   Although they are not included in the customer list of the company, citing the firm as cost efficient provider of mortgage services is a mechanism in better servicing the interest of their investors/ occupants.Publicity can also provide the necessary marketing medium.   It can advertise the company on a wider scale without the communication to several parties rather than single marketing agency.   As an alternative, the company can develop its own publicity by designing an advertising or promotional campaign.   Local newspapers can highlight the services offered, target market, average mortgage rate and service fee that are offered by the firm.This can create initial perception about its positioning (e.g. low-cost service provider).   Feedback is important in any campaign to determine if the market has gained perception similar to what the company intends to be.   In this view, it is important to include in the newspaper ad contact details such as telephone number, website and address.   Getting the feedback is important since b eing a low-cost service provider can create impression that the service is inferior to others offering higher prices.Target MarketsBeing a low-cost service provider, the firm is expected to attract the low-income segment and parts of middle-income segment.   This is concretized by the fact that the firm is offering a start-to-finish approach where clients can have full services from loan application, home appraisal and contract delivery.   The work-oriented lifestyle of these segments can receive significant benefits of this approach since they can save time, money and simplify issues associated with home purchases/ loan.Primary and secondary homeowners are also target market.   The former are inexperienced and the consultancy services can serve as guide in decision-making.   In the contrary, the latter are experienced but are in need of refinancing services as they find a more attractive loan contract from different lender or have changed their mind regarding their initial home purchase.   Acquirer of leisure properties are also target market because the company has a portfolio of different lenders who can meet the requirements of such loan.As FHA loans will likely consist of low- and middle-income segment, VA loans bring forth a new segment.   This includes retirees and at least fifty year old people or their widows who intend to marry again.   The service that can be offered to them is advisory particularly on issues such as enjoying â€Å"double† exemption for capital-gain tax in case of selling a home which subsequently mean getting the exemption first before remarrying.   Further, older people have less time to manage their properties particularly researching, monitoring and evaluation of economic trends.As a result, most of their decisions are based on experience and judgment.   The company can intervene in this case in offering valuable services to contribute the missing link of older people’s considerations.   Lastly, the company can attract potential market that places their investments in stocks, bonds and mutual funds.   With lowest fees and integrated service, real estate investment has relatively lower transaction costs than other investment choices.4Ps and SIVA on Marketing PlanThe market research provides information that will shape the products of the company as they require adjustment based on state-specific factors.   It also contributes on pricing the service as low-price services may not appeal to the local market making the current position less effective.   Therefore, necessary promotions that can add value to the service can be initiated.   In using each marketing medium, the company can increase its presence and market penetration to each state.It can rationalize the need for publicity and additional expenses for advertising depending on the market behavior and strength of local housing authorities in influencing them.   For example, if housing is strictly regulated or supporting mechanisms are minimal, the company may likely opt to use the media in increasing awareness and demand.   By determining target markets, the scanning done in market research and identification of potential marketing medium will be evaluated based the characteristics of the market.   Target markets is the most crucial part of the marketing plan because it simplifies consideration of the factors in general environment and marketing medium to those that are only significant in influencing market behavior.Satisfaction of the market is addressed when the company offers products and services that are relevant to their current needs.   This includes augmenting loopholes of local housing authorities in providing related services and incentives.   Their interests are activated by actively establishing business partners through local housing authorities, home sellers, REIT and other parties related to housing sector.   Word-of-mouth marketing is acquired.   The value fo r money regarding the services of the company is aligned to the income situation of its target market which assures an effective strategy.   On the other hand, well-off segment would see the low-price service as opportunity to get a second opinion and increase lender alternative.   Finally, convenience in accessing the firm’s services is supported also by various marketing medium.ReferencesGeller, L. (2002) Response: The Complete Guide to Profitable Direct Marketing. New York: Oxford University Press.Hitt, M., Hoskisson, R. & Ireland, R. (2003) Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. 5th Ed. South Western: Thomson Learning.Kotler, P. (2003) Marketing Management.11th Ed, NJ: Prentice Hall.